The inhibition of self-discharge in a redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitor (Redox-EC) is crucial for excellent energy retention. Heptyl viologen dibromide (HVBr2) was chosen as a strong candidate of a dual-redox species in Redox-EC due to its solid complexations during the charging process, at which HV2+ is electrochemically reduced to HV+• and form a solid complex, [HV+•·Br-], on an anode while Br- is electro-oxidized to Br3 - and renders [HV2+·2Br3 -] on a cathode. The solid complexes could not transfer across the separator, resulting in significant diminution of the self-discharge. In this Article, we present detailed electrochemical studies of formation of [HV2+·2Br3 -] and [HV+•·Br-], their redox features, and galvanic exchange reactions between the two types of dual-redox ionic solids on a Pt ultra-microelectrode (UME) in neutral (0.33 M Na2SO4) and acidic (1 M H2SO4) solutions. Most importantly, through voltammetric and particle-impact electrochemical analyses, we found that the redox and galvanic exchange reactions of the two dual-redox ionic solid complexes involve H+ transfer, which is the key process to limit the overall kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. We also rationalize the proton-accompanied galvanic exchange reaction based on computational simulation.
- dual-redox ionic solid complexation
- galvanic exchange reaction
- particle-impact electrochemistry
- proton-accompanied redox chemistry
- redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitor