Implantable devices have emerged as a promising industry. It is inevitable that these devices will require a power source to operate in vivo. Thus, to power implantable medical devices, biofuel cells (BFCs) that generate electricity using glucose without an external power supply have been considered. Although implantable BFCs have been developed for application in vivo, they are limited by their bulky electrodes and low power density. In the present study, we attempted to apply to living mice an implantable enzymatic BFC (EBFC) that was previously reported to be a high-power EBFC comprising carbon nanotube yarn electrodes. To improve their mechanical properties and for convenient implantation, the electrodes were coated with Nafion and twisted into a micro-sized, two-ply, one-body system. When the two-ply EBFC system was implanted in the abdominal cavity of mice, it provided a high-power density of 0.3 mW/cm2. The two-ply EBFC system was injected through a needle using a syringe without surgery and the inflammatory response in vivo initially induced by the injection of the EBFC system was attenuated after 7 days, indicating the biocompatibility of the system in vivo.
- Implantable enzymatic biofuel cell
- multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)