We have investigated the characteristics of Bi2O3 nanorods synthesized through the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process. Trimethylbismuth and O2 were taken as the source of bismuth and oxygen, respectively. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that optimal O2/Ar gas flow ratio in the growth process favored the formation of nanorods. Transmission electron microscope studies indicated that the O2/Ar gas flow ratio affected the crystalline phase of the product. The growth mechanism of nanorods was discussed. Photoluminescence spectra under excitation at 325 nm showed a strong and broad emission centered at around 420-450 nm.