The growing demand for green energy has fueled the exploration of sustainable and eco-friendly energy storage systems. To date, the primary focus has been solely on the enhancement of lithium-ion battery (LIB) technologies. Recently, the increasing demand and uneven distribution of lithium resources have prompted extensive attention toward the development of other advanced battery systems. As a promising alternative to LIBs, potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) have attracted considerable interest over the past years owing to their resource abundance, low cost, and high working voltage. Capitalizing on the significant research and technological advancements of LIBs, KIBs have undergone rapid development, especially the anode component, and diverse synthesis techniques, potassiation chemistry, and energy storage applications have been systematically investigated and proposed. In this review, the necessity of exploring superior anode materials is highlighted, and representative KIB anodes as well as various structural construction approaches are summarized. Furthermore, critical issues, challenges, and perspectives of KIB anodes are meticulously organized and presented. With a strengthened understanding of the associated potassiation chemistry, the composition and microstructural modification of KIB anodes could be significantly improved.