In this work, the occurrence of contaminants in drinking water sources was described in relation to their treatment options based on both conventional (e.g., coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation filtration, and chlorination) and advanced treatment techniques (e.g., membrane filtration, ozonation, and biofiltration). However, due to apparent drawbacks of these methods (e.g., formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs)), it is desirable to develop an alternative option for safe drinking water. In this respect, biochar is recognized as an effective candidate to resolve the limitations in treating common pollutants typically occurring in drinking water such as microbial contaminants, inorganic contaminants, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). As biochar can exhibit different types of interactions with adsorbates, its sorption processes can be explained by diverse mechanisms, e.g., π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions, complexation, precipitation, H-bonding, and electrostatic attraction. In light of the attractive features of biochar (e.g., enhanced sorption properties, cost-effectiveness, and environmentally friendly nature), we offer in-depth discussion on biochar-based water treatment technologies for large-scale water purification operation.Highlights Occurrence of various contaminants in drinking water sources are discussed. Human health impacts of exposure to drinking water contaminants are highlighted. Performances and limitations of conventional and advanced water treatment technologies are discussed. Potentials of pristine and modified biochars for drinking water purification are emphasized. Feasibility and importance of biochar-based large-scale water treatment technologies are highlighted.
|Number of pages||63|
|Journal||Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology|
|State||Published - 2020 Mar 18|
- drinking water
- water quality
- water treatment