The recent developments of new devices and advances in anesthesiology have greatly improved the utility and accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM). Herein, we review the basic principles of the electrophysiological methods employed under IOM in the operating room. These include motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, electroencephalography, electromyography, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and visual evoked potentials. Most of these techniques have certain limitations and their utility is still being debated. In this review, we also discuss the optimal stimulation/recording method for each of these modalities during individual surgeries as well as the diverse criteria for alarm signs.
- Evoked potential
- Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring