Implantable Biosupercapacitor Inspired by the Cellular Redox System

Yongwoo Jang, Taegyu Park, Eunyoung Kim, Jong Woo Park, Dong Yeop Lee, Seon Jeong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn supercapacitor has high potential for in vivo energy storage because it can be used in aqueous environments and stitched to inner parts of the body, such as blood vessels. The biocompatibility issue for frequently used pseudocapacitive materials, such as metal oxides, is controversial in the human body. Here, we report an implantable CNT yarn supercapacitor inspired by the cellular redox system. In all living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a key redox biomolecule responsible for cellular energy transduction to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Based on this redox system, CNT yarn electrodes were fabricated by inserting a twist in CNT sheets with electrochemically deposited NAD and benzoquinone for redox shuttling. Consequently, the NAD/BQ/CNT yarn electrodes exhibited the maximum area capacitance (55.73 mF cm−2) under physiological conditions, such as phosphate-buffered saline and serum. In addition, the yarn electrodes showed a negligible loss of capacitance after 10 000 repeated charge/discharge cycles and deformation tests (bending/knotting). More importantly, NAD/BQ/CNT yarn electrodes implanted into the abdominal cavity of a rat's skin exhibited the stable in vivo electrical performance of a supercapacitor. Therefore, these findings demonstrate a redox biomolecule-applied platform for implantable energy storage devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10563-10567
Number of pages5
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number19
StatePublished - 2021 May 3


  • carbon nanotube
  • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  • supercapacitor


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