Background: The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori has declined, mainly due to antimicrobial resistance. To overcome resistance-associated treatment failure, the efficacy of culture-based, susceptibility-guided therapy was demonstrated as the first-line eradication therapy for H pylori infection. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of culture-based therapy as the first-line eradication therapy in regions with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Helicobacter pylori-positive patients without previous eradication treatment history were recommended to undergo culture to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). If they consented, 7-day clarithromycin-containing PPI triple; 7-day esomeprazole, moxifloxacin, and amoxicillin (MEA) therapy; or 7- or 14-day esomeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline (quadruple) therapy were administered based on the agar dilution-determined MIC. Eradication, treatment compliance, and adverse events were examined. Results: In total, 74 patients were enrolled, and 69 patients completed the protocols. The overall resistance rates to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and moxifloxacin were 6.7%, 31.0%, 41.8%, and 39.2%, respectively. The patients were allocated to the PPI triple (n = 50), MEA (n = 8) or quadruple (n = 16) therapy. The eradication rate in the intention-to-treat analysis was 93.1% (69 of 74 patients). The eradication rates in the per-protocol analysis were 100.0% (69 of 69 patients). Epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting were less common than those of other empirical therapies. Conclusions: Culture-based, susceptibility-guided therapy is effective first-line eradication therapy, especially in regions with high levels of antimicrobial resistance.
- Helicobacter pylori
- tailored therapy