It is shown that addition of alumina, zinc-oxide, and diamond particles can enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) limit of water in flow boiling. The particles used here were in the nanometer range (<100 nm) and at low concentration (≤0.1 vol %). The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500 kg/m2 s, 2000 kg/m2 s, and 2500 kg/m2 s). The thermal conditions at CHF were subcooled. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53%, and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A postmortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during boiling. Additionally, the wettability of the surface is substantially increased, which seems to correlate well with the observed CHF enhancement.
- Critical heat flux
- Flow boiling