Cell therapy has been extensively studied as an approach to repair damage in nervous system diseases. Multipotent stromal cells [MSCs] are well known to have neuroprotective effects and neural differentiation potential. The ability to induce migration of MSCs near nervous system damage via direct transplantation or via intravenous injections and increase the secretion of neurotrophic factors from MSCs might improve our ability to repair damage to the nervous system through cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated whether recombinant human erythropoietin [rhEPO], known to have a hematopoietic effect, could increase the motility of human bone marrow [hBM]-MSCs and enhance production of neurotrophic factors from hBM-MSCs. Based on the results of our MTT assay, trypan blue staining, and bromodeoxyuridine ELISA, rhEPO treatment increases the viability of MSCs but not their proliferation. With a migration assay kit, we demonstrated that the motility of hBM-MSCs was enhanced in rhEPO-treated cells. Immunoblotting assays revealed increased expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3β, phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), β PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX), CXCR4, phospho tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 [VEGFR-2] in rhEPO-treated cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and gelatin zymography demonstrated that rhEPO treatment induces MMP-2 mRNA level and activity. In the studies using ELISAs, we found that rhEPO could increase levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1α, VEGF, and brain-derived neurotrophic factors. These findings suggest that rhEPO can increase the viability and motility of hBM-MSCs by affecting various intracellular signals including Akt, ERK, β-PIX, CXCR4, TrkB, VEGFR-2, and MMP-2 and can enhance the production of neurotrophic factors from hBM-MSCs.