Enhanced oral bioavailability of an etoposide multiple nanoemulsion incorporating a deoxycholic acid derivative–lipid complex

Saurav Kumar Jha, Hee Soo Han, Laxman Subedi, Rudra Pangeni, Jee Young Chung, Seho Kweon, Jeong Uk Choi, Youngro Byun, Yong Hee Kim, Jin Woo Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, a system for oral delivery of etoposide (ETP) was designed to avoid the problems associated with low and variable bioavailability of a commercially available ETP emulsion comprised of polyethylene glycol, glycerol, and citric acid anhydrous. ETP was complexed with low-molecular-weight methylcellulose (ETP/LMC) and loaded into a water-in-oil-in-water multiple nanoemulsion to formulate an ETP/LMC-nanoemulsion (ELNE). To further enhance the oral bioavailability, an ionic complex formed by anionic lipid 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (sodium salt) and cationic N α-deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester was incorporated into ELNE, yielding ELNE#7. As expected, ELNE#7 showed 4.07- and 2.25-fold increases in artificial membrane and Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12 permeability (Papp), respectively, resulting in 224% greater oral bioavailability compared with the commercially available ETP emulsion. In contrast, inhibition of clathrin- and caveola-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and bile acid transporters by chlorpromazine, genistein, amiloride, and actinomycin D in Caco-2/HT-29-MTX-E12 monolayers reduced the Papp by 45.0%, 20.5%, 28.8%, and 31.1%, respectively. These findings suggest that these routes play important roles in enhancing the oral absorption of ELNE#7. In addition, our mechanistic study suggested that P-glycoprotein did not have an inhibitory effect on the permeation of ELNE#7. Notably, ELNE#7 showed significantly enhanced toxicity in LLC and A549 cells compared with ETP-E. These observations support the improved oral absorption of ETP in ELNE#7, suggesting that it is a better alternative than ETP emulsion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1501-1513
Number of pages13
JournalDrug Delivery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2020 Jan 1


  • Etoposide
  • bile acid transporter-mediated uptake
  • nanoemulsion
  • oral absorption
  • oral bioavailability
  • permeability


Dive into the research topics of 'Enhanced oral bioavailability of an etoposide multiple nanoemulsion incorporating a deoxycholic acid derivative–lipid complex'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this