Enhanced antitumor efficacy of bile acid-lipid complex-anchored docetaxel nanoemulsion via oral metronomic scheduling

Saurav Kumar Jha, Jee Young Chung, Rudra Pangeni, Hyeong Seok Choi, Laxman Subedi, Seho Kweon, Jeong Uk Choi, Youngro Byun, Yong Hee Kim, Jin Woo Park

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3 Scopus citations


In this study, a system for oral delivery of docetaxel (DTX) was prepared to enhance the oral absorption and anticancer efficacy of DTX via metronomic chemotherapy. DTX was complexed with low-molecular-weight methylcellulose (LMC) and loaded into a nanoemulsion (NE), yielding DTX/LMC-NE (DLNE). To further enhance the oral bioavailability, D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate and sodium deoxycholate (DOCA) complexed with cationic lipid 1,2-dioleyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) (DOCA-DOTAP [DA-TAP] complex) was incorporated into DLNE, yielding the formulation DLNE#10. As expected, DLNE#10 showed 11.3- and 5.81-fold increases in artificial membrane (Pe) and Caco-2 permeability (Papp), respectively, resulting in 249% greater oral bioavailability, compared to free DTX. In contrast, inhibition of clathrin- and caveola-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and bile acid transporters by chlorpromazine, genistein, amiloride, and actinomycin D in the Caco-2 monolayer reduced the Papp by 55.3%, 44.2%, 35.9%, and 36.5%, respectively; these findings suggest that these routes play important roles in enhancing the oral absorption of DLNE#10. In addition, our mechanistic study suggested that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) did not have an inhibitory effect on the permeation of DLNE#10. Notably, the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of DLNE#10 were 43.5% and 16.8% greater than those of Taxotere® in MCF-7 and 4T1 cells, respectively. Finally, the tumor inhibitory rates in 4T1 cell tumor-bearing mice after oral metronomic dosing of DLNE#10 (20 mg/kg DTX) were 5.02- and 1.65-fold greater than the rates in the untreated control group and intravenously injected DTX (10 mg/kg) group, respectively. These observations support the improved oral absorption and enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy of DTX in DLNE#10 via metronomic chemotherapy, suggesting that it is a better alternative than intravenous Taxotere®.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)368-394
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
StatePublished - 2020 Dec 10


  • Bile acid transporter-mediated uptake
  • Docetaxel
  • Metronomic chemotherapy
  • Nanoemulsion
  • Oral absorption


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