This study explores the economic status of female marriage immigrants in South Korea. Multilevel analyses were performed to examine the effects of individual characteristics and social context on their employment and poverty status. The results revealed that human capital, social capital and family conditions are significantly associated with employment and poverty status. Assimilation-related factors also had an indirect effect on poverty by impacting employment. Social context factors exhibited unique and significant effects on economic status; in particular, rurality and unemployment rates were negatively associated with employment. Finally, regardless of employment status, female marriage immigrants in rural areas were at greater risk of falling into poverty than their urban counterparts.