Electrochemistry of high concentration copper chloride complexes

Hong Zhao, Jinho Chang, Aliaksei Boika, Allen J. Bard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High concentrations of copper chloride solutions (in the molar range) are used in several industrial applications. In this work, we investigated the species distribution of copper chloride complexes and how to measure the copper concentration precisely at high concentrations using electrochemical methods, by including migrational effects. The latter, in fact, can be useful in determining the nature of the species in solution undergoing electron transfer at the electrode. The study indicates that the main species of Cu(II) complexes in high chloride concentration is CuCl4 2- and the main species of Cu(I) complexes are CuCl2 - and CuCl 3 2-. However insoluble CuCl is an intermediate in the process and can deactivate the electrode surface. This can be ameliorated by increasing the temperature or Cl- concentration. Under these conditions, voltammetry with an ultramicroelectrode (UME) can measure copper concentration with good precision even at 1 M Cu(II) concentrations in a few molar chloride. The main charge of the species can be determined by fitting to a migration model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7696-7703
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical chemistry
Volume85
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013 Aug 20

Fingerprint

Electrochemistry
Chlorides
Copper
Electrodes
Voltammetry
Industrial applications
Electrons
Temperature

Cite this

Zhao, Hong ; Chang, Jinho ; Boika, Aliaksei ; Bard, Allen J. / Electrochemistry of high concentration copper chloride complexes. In: Analytical chemistry. 2013 ; Vol. 85, No. 16. pp. 7696-7703.
@article{62ca1f4aad3c4bcca97f7ab1fefe07ee,
title = "Electrochemistry of high concentration copper chloride complexes",
abstract = "High concentrations of copper chloride solutions (in the molar range) are used in several industrial applications. In this work, we investigated the species distribution of copper chloride complexes and how to measure the copper concentration precisely at high concentrations using electrochemical methods, by including migrational effects. The latter, in fact, can be useful in determining the nature of the species in solution undergoing electron transfer at the electrode. The study indicates that the main species of Cu(II) complexes in high chloride concentration is CuCl4 2- and the main species of Cu(I) complexes are CuCl2 - and CuCl 3 2-. However insoluble CuCl is an intermediate in the process and can deactivate the electrode surface. This can be ameliorated by increasing the temperature or Cl- concentration. Under these conditions, voltammetry with an ultramicroelectrode (UME) can measure copper concentration with good precision even at 1 M Cu(II) concentrations in a few molar chloride. The main charge of the species can be determined by fitting to a migration model.",
author = "Hong Zhao and Jinho Chang and Aliaksei Boika and Bard, {Allen J.}",
year = "2013",
month = "8",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1021/ac4016769",
language = "English",
volume = "85",
pages = "7696--7703",
journal = "Analytical chemistry",
issn = "0003-2700",
number = "16",

}

Electrochemistry of high concentration copper chloride complexes. / Zhao, Hong; Chang, Jinho; Boika, Aliaksei; Bard, Allen J.

In: Analytical chemistry, Vol. 85, No. 16, 20.08.2013, p. 7696-7703.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrochemistry of high concentration copper chloride complexes

AU - Zhao, Hong

AU - Chang, Jinho

AU - Boika, Aliaksei

AU - Bard, Allen J.

PY - 2013/8/20

Y1 - 2013/8/20

N2 - High concentrations of copper chloride solutions (in the molar range) are used in several industrial applications. In this work, we investigated the species distribution of copper chloride complexes and how to measure the copper concentration precisely at high concentrations using electrochemical methods, by including migrational effects. The latter, in fact, can be useful in determining the nature of the species in solution undergoing electron transfer at the electrode. The study indicates that the main species of Cu(II) complexes in high chloride concentration is CuCl4 2- and the main species of Cu(I) complexes are CuCl2 - and CuCl 3 2-. However insoluble CuCl is an intermediate in the process and can deactivate the electrode surface. This can be ameliorated by increasing the temperature or Cl- concentration. Under these conditions, voltammetry with an ultramicroelectrode (UME) can measure copper concentration with good precision even at 1 M Cu(II) concentrations in a few molar chloride. The main charge of the species can be determined by fitting to a migration model.

AB - High concentrations of copper chloride solutions (in the molar range) are used in several industrial applications. In this work, we investigated the species distribution of copper chloride complexes and how to measure the copper concentration precisely at high concentrations using electrochemical methods, by including migrational effects. The latter, in fact, can be useful in determining the nature of the species in solution undergoing electron transfer at the electrode. The study indicates that the main species of Cu(II) complexes in high chloride concentration is CuCl4 2- and the main species of Cu(I) complexes are CuCl2 - and CuCl 3 2-. However insoluble CuCl is an intermediate in the process and can deactivate the electrode surface. This can be ameliorated by increasing the temperature or Cl- concentration. Under these conditions, voltammetry with an ultramicroelectrode (UME) can measure copper concentration with good precision even at 1 M Cu(II) concentrations in a few molar chloride. The main charge of the species can be determined by fitting to a migration model.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84882586833&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/ac4016769

DO - 10.1021/ac4016769

M3 - Article

C2 - 23848061

AN - SCOPUS:84882586833

VL - 85

SP - 7696

EP - 7703

JO - Analytical chemistry

JF - Analytical chemistry

SN - 0003-2700

IS - 16

ER -