Effects of street-level physical environment and zoning on walking activity in Seoul, Korea

Hyungun Sung, Doohwan Go, Chang gyu Choi, Sang Hyun Cheon, Sungjin Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Many studies in the public health and urban planning fields have suggested that zoning can promote an increase in physical activity by encouraging walking. New urbanists and smart growth advocates claim that Euclidian zoning results in spatial segregation of land use that actually works against walking activity. Few studies have identified empirically the effects of zoning on walking activity. Employing multiple regression modeling, this study identified the impacts of street-level physical environment and zoning regulations on street-level walking activity in Seoul, Korea. Our results demonstrate that areas zoned for mixed land use have greater potential for pedestrian activity than do other zoning types. In addition, we found that there are signs of interaction effects between street-level physical environment and zoning. This result demands further research to prove that efforts to improve walking-friendly, street-level physical environments should be combined with zoning regulations to promote walking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-160
Number of pages9
JournalLand Use Policy
StatePublished - 2015 Dec 1


  • Mixed-use
  • Public health
  • Street-level form
  • Walking activity
  • Zoning


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