Effect of Fe incorporation on electrical properties of (NixCoyMn3-x-y)O4 (NMC) spinel compound is investigated for the application to a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. Cation distribution of the Fe doped NMC (FNMC) is calculated based on the size of ions located at tetragonal A sites and octahedral B sites in spinel structure, which can be closely related with temperature dependent electrical properties of the FNMC. With change of Fe contents, the ratio of Mn3+/Mn4+ in octahedral B site of FNMC is changed which can determine the temperature sensitivity factor (B-value). Hopping conduction mode relating with activation energy and hopping distance was also discussed depending on Fe contents, based on the small polaron hopping theory.
- Hopping conduction
- Spinel oxide