Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus: toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate

Jiu Qiang Xiong, Sunjoon Kim, Mayur B. Kurade, Sanjay Prabhu Govindwar, Reda A.I. Abou-Shanab, Jung Rae Kim, Hyun Seog Roh, Moonis Ali Khan, Byong-Hun Jeon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-146
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019 May 15

Fingerprint

Sulfamethazine
Scenedesmus
Sulfamethoxazole
microalga
Biodegradation
Fresh Water
Toxicity
biodegradation
toxicity
methylation
environmental effect
Hydroxylation
cleavage
Methylation
Spectroscopic analysis
metabolite
Metabolites
microorganism
Microorganisms
fold

Keywords

  • Pharmaceutical contaminants
  • biodegradation
  • metabolic products
  • microalgae
  • sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole
  • toxicity modeling.

Cite this

@article{c8fec397e39748418ff5d096376b5b68,
title = "Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus: toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate",
abstract = "This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3{\%} and 29.3{\%} removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.",
keywords = "Pharmaceutical contaminants, biodegradation, metabolic products, microalgae, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole, toxicity modeling.",
author = "Xiong, {Jiu Qiang} and Sunjoon Kim and Kurade, {Mayur B.} and Govindwar, {Sanjay Prabhu} and Abou-Shanab, {Reda A.I.} and Kim, {Jung Rae} and Roh, {Hyun Seog} and Khan, {Moonis Ali} and Byong-Hun Jeon",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049",
language = "English",
pages = "138--146",
journal = "Journal of Hazardous Materials",
issn = "0304-3894",

}

Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus : toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate. / Xiong, Jiu Qiang; Kim, Sunjoon; Kurade, Mayur B.; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu; Abou-Shanab, Reda A.I.; Kim, Jung Rae; Roh, Hyun Seog; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun.

In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 15.05.2019, p. 138-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus

T2 - toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate

AU - Xiong, Jiu Qiang

AU - Kim, Sunjoon

AU - Kurade, Mayur B.

AU - Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

AU - Abou-Shanab, Reda A.I.

AU - Kim, Jung Rae

AU - Roh, Hyun Seog

AU - Khan, Moonis Ali

AU - Jeon, Byong-Hun

PY - 2019/5/15

Y1 - 2019/5/15

N2 - This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.

AB - This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.

KW - Pharmaceutical contaminants

KW - biodegradation

KW - metabolic products

KW - microalgae

KW - sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole

KW - toxicity modeling.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050317256&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049

DO - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049

M3 - Article

SP - 138

EP - 146

JO - Journal of Hazardous Materials

JF - Journal of Hazardous Materials

SN - 0304-3894

ER -