Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors

Daisuke Ikeda, Hisao Tokuno, Masaki Fukushima, Nobuyuki Sakurai, Hiroyuki Sagawa, Masahiro Takeda, Tatsunobu Shibata, Akimichi Taketa, Yoshiki Tsunesada, Yuichiro Tameda, Naoya Inoue, Shingo Kawana, Shigeharu Udo, Byung Gu Cheon, Eun Jung Cho, Bok Kyun Shin

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

The Telescope Array (TA) experiment has three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs). Two stations (Black Rock Mesa "BR" and Long Ridge "LR") consist of 24 new detectors (12 each). The third station (Middle Drum "MD") consists of 14 detectors that were reconditioned and redeployed from the High Resolution Fly's Eys experiment (HiRes). In this paper, we describe the detector calibration process for the BR and LR FD stations. The telescope calibration includes the measurement of (1) mirror reflectances, (2) absolute gains of reference phototubes, (3) "relative gains" of the clusters of 256 tubes, (4) (non-)uniformity of photo-cathode sensitivity of the tubes, and (5) transmittance of the UV filters on the photo-tubes and acrylic windows on the cameras. The reflectances of mirrors, transmittance of the UV filters and the acrylic windows are measured using a spectrophotometer. The absolute gains and nonuniformity of photo-cathode are measured with a simple pulsed UV light calibration systems and a large XY stage with UV LEDs. The relative gains are monitored hourly during observations with a Xe flasher and an alpha-ray scintillator pulsar called YAP. We discuss the qualities of the calibration data, and we evaluate systematic uncertainties in air shower reconstruction and energy determinations.

Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 2009 Jan 1
Event31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009 - Lodz, Poland
Duration: 2009 Jul 72009 Jul 15

Other

Other31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009
CountryPoland
CityLodz
Period09/07/709/07/15

Fingerprint

telescopes
fluorescence
stations
detectors
tubes
nonuniformity
transmittance
cathodes
phototubes
mirrors
reflectance
filters
drums
cosmic ray showers
mesas
spectrophotometers
pulsars
scintillation counters
ridges
rays

Keywords

  • Fluorescence light
  • Telescope array experiment
  • Ultra-high energy cosmic rays

Cite this

Ikeda, D., Tokuno, H., Fukushima, M., Sakurai, N., Sagawa, H., Takeda, M., ... Shin, B. K. (2009). Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors. Paper presented at 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009, Lodz, Poland.
Ikeda, Daisuke ; Tokuno, Hisao ; Fukushima, Masaki ; Sakurai, Nobuyuki ; Sagawa, Hiroyuki ; Takeda, Masahiro ; Shibata, Tatsunobu ; Taketa, Akimichi ; Tsunesada, Yoshiki ; Tameda, Yuichiro ; Inoue, Naoya ; Kawana, Shingo ; Udo, Shigeharu ; Cheon, Byung Gu ; Cho, Eun Jung ; Shin, Bok Kyun. / Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors. Paper presented at 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009, Lodz, Poland.
@conference{d50396e8696a4b069df4e4a62229eaa1,
title = "Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors",
abstract = "The Telescope Array (TA) experiment has three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs). Two stations (Black Rock Mesa {"}BR{"} and Long Ridge {"}LR{"}) consist of 24 new detectors (12 each). The third station (Middle Drum {"}MD{"}) consists of 14 detectors that were reconditioned and redeployed from the High Resolution Fly's Eys experiment (HiRes). In this paper, we describe the detector calibration process for the BR and LR FD stations. The telescope calibration includes the measurement of (1) mirror reflectances, (2) absolute gains of reference phototubes, (3) {"}relative gains{"} of the clusters of 256 tubes, (4) (non-)uniformity of photo-cathode sensitivity of the tubes, and (5) transmittance of the UV filters on the photo-tubes and acrylic windows on the cameras. The reflectances of mirrors, transmittance of the UV filters and the acrylic windows are measured using a spectrophotometer. The absolute gains and nonuniformity of photo-cathode are measured with a simple pulsed UV light calibration systems and a large XY stage with UV LEDs. The relative gains are monitored hourly during observations with a Xe flasher and an alpha-ray scintillator pulsar called YAP. We discuss the qualities of the calibration data, and we evaluate systematic uncertainties in air shower reconstruction and energy determinations.",
keywords = "Fluorescence light, Telescope array experiment, Ultra-high energy cosmic rays",
author = "Daisuke Ikeda and Hisao Tokuno and Masaki Fukushima and Nobuyuki Sakurai and Hiroyuki Sagawa and Masahiro Takeda and Tatsunobu Shibata and Akimichi Taketa and Yoshiki Tsunesada and Yuichiro Tameda and Naoya Inoue and Shingo Kawana and Shigeharu Udo and Cheon, {Byung Gu} and Cho, {Eun Jung} and Shin, {Bok Kyun}",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
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language = "English",
note = "null ; Conference date: 07-07-2009 Through 15-07-2009",

}

Ikeda, D, Tokuno, H, Fukushima, M, Sakurai, N, Sagawa, H, Takeda, M, Shibata, T, Taketa, A, Tsunesada, Y, Tameda, Y, Inoue, N, Kawana, S, Udo, S, Cheon, BG, Cho, EJ & Shin, BK 2009, 'Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors', Paper presented at 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009, Lodz, Poland, 09/07/7 - 09/07/15.

Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors. / Ikeda, Daisuke; Tokuno, Hisao; Fukushima, Masaki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Masahiro; Shibata, Tatsunobu; Taketa, Akimichi; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Tameda, Yuichiro; Inoue, Naoya; Kawana, Shingo; Udo, Shigeharu; Cheon, Byung Gu; Cho, Eun Jung; Shin, Bok Kyun.

2009. Paper presented at 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009, Lodz, Poland.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors

AU - Ikeda, Daisuke

AU - Tokuno, Hisao

AU - Fukushima, Masaki

AU - Sakurai, Nobuyuki

AU - Sagawa, Hiroyuki

AU - Takeda, Masahiro

AU - Shibata, Tatsunobu

AU - Taketa, Akimichi

AU - Tsunesada, Yoshiki

AU - Tameda, Yuichiro

AU - Inoue, Naoya

AU - Kawana, Shingo

AU - Udo, Shigeharu

AU - Cheon, Byung Gu

AU - Cho, Eun Jung

AU - Shin, Bok Kyun

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - The Telescope Array (TA) experiment has three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs). Two stations (Black Rock Mesa "BR" and Long Ridge "LR") consist of 24 new detectors (12 each). The third station (Middle Drum "MD") consists of 14 detectors that were reconditioned and redeployed from the High Resolution Fly's Eys experiment (HiRes). In this paper, we describe the detector calibration process for the BR and LR FD stations. The telescope calibration includes the measurement of (1) mirror reflectances, (2) absolute gains of reference phototubes, (3) "relative gains" of the clusters of 256 tubes, (4) (non-)uniformity of photo-cathode sensitivity of the tubes, and (5) transmittance of the UV filters on the photo-tubes and acrylic windows on the cameras. The reflectances of mirrors, transmittance of the UV filters and the acrylic windows are measured using a spectrophotometer. The absolute gains and nonuniformity of photo-cathode are measured with a simple pulsed UV light calibration systems and a large XY stage with UV LEDs. The relative gains are monitored hourly during observations with a Xe flasher and an alpha-ray scintillator pulsar called YAP. We discuss the qualities of the calibration data, and we evaluate systematic uncertainties in air shower reconstruction and energy determinations.

AB - The Telescope Array (TA) experiment has three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs). Two stations (Black Rock Mesa "BR" and Long Ridge "LR") consist of 24 new detectors (12 each). The third station (Middle Drum "MD") consists of 14 detectors that were reconditioned and redeployed from the High Resolution Fly's Eys experiment (HiRes). In this paper, we describe the detector calibration process for the BR and LR FD stations. The telescope calibration includes the measurement of (1) mirror reflectances, (2) absolute gains of reference phototubes, (3) "relative gains" of the clusters of 256 tubes, (4) (non-)uniformity of photo-cathode sensitivity of the tubes, and (5) transmittance of the UV filters on the photo-tubes and acrylic windows on the cameras. The reflectances of mirrors, transmittance of the UV filters and the acrylic windows are measured using a spectrophotometer. The absolute gains and nonuniformity of photo-cathode are measured with a simple pulsed UV light calibration systems and a large XY stage with UV LEDs. The relative gains are monitored hourly during observations with a Xe flasher and an alpha-ray scintillator pulsar called YAP. We discuss the qualities of the calibration data, and we evaluate systematic uncertainties in air shower reconstruction and energy determinations.

KW - Fluorescence light

KW - Telescope array experiment

KW - Ultra-high energy cosmic rays

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84899057596&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Paper

AN - SCOPUS:84899057596

ER -

Ikeda D, Tokuno H, Fukushima M, Sakurai N, Sagawa H, Takeda M et al. Calibration of the telescope array experiment fluorescence detectors. 2009. Paper presented at 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2009, Lodz, Poland.