All-solid-state spatial light modulator with independent phase and amplitude control for three-dimensional LiDAR applications

Junghyun Park, Byung Gil Jeong, Sun Il Kim, Duhyun Lee, Jungwoo Kim, Changgyun Shin, Chang Bum Lee, Tatsuhiro Otsuka, Jisoo Kyoung, Sangwook Kim, Ki Yeon Yang, Yong Young Park, Jisan Lee, Inoh Hwang, Jaeduck Jang, Seok Ho Song, Mark L. Brongersma, Kyoungho Ha, Sung Woo Hwang, Hyuck ChooByoung Lyong Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Spatial light modulators are essential optical elements in applications that require the ability to regulate the amplitude, phase and polarization of light, such as digital holography, optical communications and biomedical imaging. With the push towards miniaturization of optical components, static metasurfaces are used as competent alternatives. These evolved to active metasurfaces in which light-wavefront manipulation can be done in a time-dependent fashion. The active metasurfaces reported so far, however, still show incomplete phase modulation (below 360°). Here we present an all-solid-state, electrically tunable and reflective metasurface array that can generate a specific phase or a continuous sweep between 0 and 360° at an estimated rate of 5.4 MHz while independently adjusting the amplitude. The metasurface features 550 individually addressable nanoresonators in a 250 × 250 μm2 area with no micromechanical elements or liquid crystals. A key feature of our design is the presence of two independent control parameters (top and bottom gate voltages) in each nanoresonator, which are used to adjust the real and imaginary parts of the reflection coefficient independently. To demonstrate this array’s use in light detection and ranging, we performed a three-dimensional depth scan of an emulated street scene that consisted of a model car and a human figure up to a distance of 4.7 m.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-76
Number of pages8
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021 Jan

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'All-solid-state spatial light modulator with independent phase and amplitude control for three-dimensional LiDAR applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this