A review on the deteriorating situation of smog and its preventive measures in Pakistan

Waseem Raza, Saad Saeed, Hammad Saulat, Hajera Gul, Muhammad Sarfraz, Christian Sonne, Z. H. Sohn, Richard J.C. Brown, Ki Hyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Urbanization, industrialization, and increasing fossil fuel consumption are generally identified as the main contributors to poor air quality. Smog is a form of visible air pollution processes that can cause diverse health problems (e.g., pulmonary, respiratory, and skin diseases). In Lahore, the second-largest city of Pakistan, smog pollution has been a significant socioeconomic issue since 2013 of which situation has been worsening each year. In this systematic review, we discuss the major issues concerning smog in Pakistan: the causes, methods of detection, hazardous effects, and opportunities for preventive measures based on ground-level information. This study identifies smog as a potential source of human health risk as serious repercussions of economic development. It is thus suggested that adequate abatement measures should be established for the proper protection of public health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123676
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
StatePublished - 2021 Jan 10


  • Air pollution
  • Air quality
  • Smog
  • Smog formation
  • Smog prevention

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