A feasibility study of using a 3D-printed tumor model scintillator to verify the energy absorbed to a tumor

Tae Hoon Kim, Sangmin Lee, Dong Geon Kim, Jae Young Jeong, Hye Jeong Yang, Thomas Schaarschmidt, Sang Hyoun Choi, Gyu Seok Cho, Yong Kyun Kim, Hyun Tai Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The authors developed a volumetric dosimetry detector system using in-house 3D-printable plastic scintillator resins. Three tumor model scintillators (TMSs) were developed using magnetic resonance images of a tumor. The detector system consisted of a TMS, an optical fiber, a photomultiplier tube, and an electrometer. The background signal, including the Cherenkov lights generated in the optical fiber, was subtracted from the output signal. The system showed 2.1% instability when the TMS was reassembled. The system efficiencies in collecting lights for a given absorbed energy were determined by calibration at a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (kSSDL) or by calibration using Monte Carlo simulations (ksim). The TMSs were irradiated in a Gamma Knife® Icon™ (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) following a treatment plan. The energies absorbed to the TMSs were measured and compared with a calculated value. While the measured energy determined with kSSDL was (5.84 ± 3.56) % lower than the calculated value, the energy with ksim was (2.00 ± 0.76) % higher. Although the TMS detector system worked reasonably well in measuring the absorbed energy to a tumor, further improvements in the calibration procedure and system stability are needed for the system to be accepted as a quality assurance tool.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3018-3025
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Engineering and Technology
Issue number9
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • 3D-printed tumor model
  • Absorbed energy
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Plastic scintillator
  • Treatment planning system
  • Volumetric dosimetry


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