The development of nucleic acid-based portable platforms for the real-time analysis of diseases has attracted considerable scientific and commercial interest. Recently, 2D layered molybdenum sulfide (2D MoS2 from here on) nanosheets have shown great potential for the development of next-generation platforms for efficient signal transduction. Through combination with DNA as a biorecognition medium, MoS2 nanostructures have opened new opportunities to design and construct highly sensitive, specific, and commercially viable sensing devices. The use of specific short ssDNA sequences like aptamers has been proven to bind well with the unique transduction properties of 2D MoS2 nanosheets to realize aptasensing devices. Such sensors can be operated on the principles of fluorescence, electro-cheumuluminescence, and electrochemistry with many advantageous features (e.g., robust biointerfacing through various conjugation chemistries, facile sensor assembly, high stability with regard to temperature/pH, and high affinity to target). This review encompasses the state of the art information on various design tactics and working principles of MoS2/DNA sensor technology which is emerging as one of the most sought-after and valuable fields with the advent of nucleic acid inspired devices. To help achieve a new milestone in biosensing applications, great potential of this emerging technique is described further with regard to sensitivity, specificity, operational convenience, and versatility.