A case of human immunodeficiency virus -triggered hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis presenting with severe bleeding tendency

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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the less common triggers of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in which coagulation disorder is a frequent manifestation. Here, we present a case of HIV-triggered secondary HLH presenting with severe bleeding tendency and fever. Despite high-dose dexamethasone infusion (10 mg/body surface area/day), progressive disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombocytopenia resulted in massive hemathochezia: the bleeding episode ceased after endoscopic hemoclipping. After then, he took a highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Eventually, body temperature and overall laboratory findings normalized in response to HAART. Clinicians should not overlook HIV infection as a possible trigger of secondary HLH. In such cases, HAART is the core treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere36
JournalInfection and Chemotherapy
Volume53
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021 Mar

Keywords

  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  • Antiviral
  • Human immunodeficiency virus

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