A 4 v Class Potassium Metal Battery with Extremely Low Overpotential

Minghui Ye, Jang Yeon Hwang, Yang-Kook Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

K metal anodes usually have a low Coulombic efficiency and poor safety owing to their large volume variation and high chemical reactivity. In this study, a three-dimensional K (3D-K) anode is formed by plating metallic K into hollow N-doped C polyhedrons/graphene (HNCP/G). Then a Sn-based solid-electrolyte interphase layer is conformably coated onto the surface of 3D-K to construct Sn@3D-K. Compared with the typical K-foil anode, the Sn@3D-K anode can significantly reduce the interfacial resistance, improve the K+ ion transport mobility, reduce parasitic reactions, and suppress the formation of K dendrites. Meanwhile, HNCP/G serves as a chemically stable, conductive host to accommodate the volume expansion/shrinkage of Sn@3D-K. Owing to these merits, the symmetric Sn@3D-K cell exhibits low voltage hysteresis (9 mV at 0.2 mA cm-2 after 500 h; 31 mV at 1 mA cm-2 after 100 h). When paired with a Prussian blue (PB)/graphene cathode, the K1.56Mn[Fe(CN)6]1.08/Gâ1Sn@3D-K battery delivers an average discharge plateau of 4.02 V, an ultralow overpotential of 0.01 V, and a high specific capacity of 147.2 mAh g-1, approaching the theoretical value of K2MnFe(CN)6 (156 mAh g-1). A 4 V class K metal battery that exhibits extremely low overpotential and high specific capacity, which are the best among previously reported PB-based K batteries, is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9306-9314
Number of pages9
JournalACS nano
Volume13
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019 Aug 27

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Graphite
Potassium
electric batteries
potassium
Anodes
anodes
Metals
Graphene
graphene
polyhedrons
metals
hollow
Chemical reactivity
Solid electrolytes
solid electrolytes
dendrites
plating
shrinkage
Plating
low voltage

Keywords

  • 4 V discharge plateau
  • K metal battery
  • low overpotential
  • Prussian blue cathode
  • tin-based SEI layer

Cite this

Ye, Minghui ; Hwang, Jang Yeon ; Sun, Yang-Kook. / A 4 v Class Potassium Metal Battery with Extremely Low Overpotential. In: ACS nano. 2019 ; Vol. 13, No. 8. pp. 9306-9314.
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A 4 v Class Potassium Metal Battery with Extremely Low Overpotential. / Ye, Minghui; Hwang, Jang Yeon; Sun, Yang-Kook.

In: ACS nano, Vol. 13, No. 8, 27.08.2019, p. 9306-9314.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Sun, Yang-Kook

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AB - K metal anodes usually have a low Coulombic efficiency and poor safety owing to their large volume variation and high chemical reactivity. In this study, a three-dimensional K (3D-K) anode is formed by plating metallic K into hollow N-doped C polyhedrons/graphene (HNCP/G). Then a Sn-based solid-electrolyte interphase layer is conformably coated onto the surface of 3D-K to construct Sn@3D-K. Compared with the typical K-foil anode, the Sn@3D-K anode can significantly reduce the interfacial resistance, improve the K+ ion transport mobility, reduce parasitic reactions, and suppress the formation of K dendrites. Meanwhile, HNCP/G serves as a chemically stable, conductive host to accommodate the volume expansion/shrinkage of Sn@3D-K. Owing to these merits, the symmetric Sn@3D-K cell exhibits low voltage hysteresis (9 mV at 0.2 mA cm-2 after 500 h; 31 mV at 1 mA cm-2 after 100 h). When paired with a Prussian blue (PB)/graphene cathode, the K1.56Mn[Fe(CN)6]1.08/Gâ1Sn@3D-K battery delivers an average discharge plateau of 4.02 V, an ultralow overpotential of 0.01 V, and a high specific capacity of 147.2 mAh g-1, approaching the theoretical value of K2MnFe(CN)6 (156 mAh g-1). A 4 V class K metal battery that exhibits extremely low overpotential and high specific capacity, which are the best among previously reported PB-based K batteries, is proposed.

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