Highly stretchable self-powered energy sources are promising options for powering diverse wearable smart electronics. However, commercially existing energy sources are disadvantaged by tensile strain limitations and constrained deformability. Here, 1D thread-based highly stretchable triboelectric nanogenerators (HS-TENGs), a crucial step toward overcoming these obstacles, are developed based on a highly stretchable coaxial-type poly[styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene] (SIS) elastomer tube. Carbon conductive ink is injected into the SIS tube as a core 1D electrode that remains almost unaffected even under 250% stretching because of its low Young's modulus. To further facilitate power generation by the HS-TENG, a composite of barium titanate nanoparticles (BaTiO3 NPs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is coated on the initial SIS tube to modulate the dielectric permittivity based on variations in the BaTiO3 NPs volume ratio. The 1D PDMS/BaTiO3 NP composite-coated SIS and a nylon 6-coated 2D Ni–Cu conductive fabric are selected as triboelectric bottom and top layers, respectively. Woven HS-TENGs textiles yield consistent power output under various extreme and harsh conditions, including folded, twisted, and washed states. These experimental findings indicate that the approach may become useful for realizing stretchable multifunctional power sources for various wearable electronics.
- 1D poly[styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene] tube
- carbon conductive ink
- high dielectric permittivity
- stretchable triboelectric nanogenerators
- woven textiles